Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Case Or Thought Experiment Where Act Utilitarianism Essay

Consider a case or thought experiment where act utilitarianism seems to give the wrong answer. How do you think the act utilitarian should deal with this case? Act utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that is derived from the greatest happiness principle of utilitarianism, which is defines as â€Å"actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness† (cite, got from lecture slides). Happiness and reverse happiness in this definition stand for pleasure and pain. Act utilitarianism measures the net pleasure of an action. If this net pleasure is positive, the action is morally right, but if this net pleasure is negative, the action is morally wrong. In most situations, act utilitarianism is morally correct, but that is not always the case. In this paper, I will explain how political power can be manipulated through the majority and minorities of a country’s population and how that can lead to the oppression of minorities, but also be morally right under act utilitarianism. â€Å"As mentioned above, act utilitarianism uses pleasure minus pain to determine the amount of pleasure that will come from a certain action. If an action creates more pleasure than pain, then that action is considered to promote happiness† (Mill pg.). Act utilitarianism comes from the philosopher, John Stuart Mill. This theory of act utilitarianism derives from the greatest happiness principle. Actions that promote happiness is anotherShow MoreRelatedA Defense Of Abortion By Judith Thomson1678 Words   |  7 Pageslife of an unborn fetus has priority, and thus abortion is morally impermissible as it violates the fetus’ right to life. In her article â€Å"A Defense of Abortion†, Judith Thomson argues that abortion is morally permissible under the certain conditions where the rights of the fetus fail to surpass a mother’s right of choice. For the sake of her argument, Thomson allows the assumption that a fetus is a person, and instead attacks the premise that the fetus’ right to life is stronger than that of a mother’sRead MoreEthical Theories And Principles Of The Ethics1576 Words   |  7 Pagesmatter; this is because according to deontologists one is right in acting a certain way only if one acts for the right reason. To dive deeper into deontological ethics one must discuss Immanuel Kant for he is the philosopher who represents the enlightenment and deontology. According to Kant, one must figure out what the right thing to do by â€Å"identifying the requirements of the universal moral code† and act â€Å"on that basis, rather than because it happens to be in one’s interest or one happens to feel likeRead MoreUtilitarianism : An Ethical Theory Essay1731 Words   |  7 PagesUtilitarianism Utilitarianism is one of the most powerful and persuasive approaches to normative ethics in the history of philosophy. Even though It was not fully articulated until the 19th century, proto-Utilitarian positions can be recognized and discerned throughout the history of ethical theory. (Driver, Julia. â€Å"The History of Utilitarianism.† Stanford University. Stanford University, 2009. Web. 01 Oct. 2016). Utilitarianism is an Ethical Theory that was a result of combining aspects of ConsequentialismRead MoreMaking Decisions about Ethical Matters1742 Words   |  7 Pagesa complicated and well thought-out process. To make things smoother and of a more efficient manner, there have been various systems put in place to provide rules and guidelines as to how to ensure that what is decided is morally right. Here, we will take a look at the view of utilitarianism, and discuss an important flaw it presents us with. Many articles include discussions that look at this in great depth, where it appears the once highly renowned system of utilitarianism has revealed to us variousRead MoreEssay about The Ethics of Torture1633 Words   |  7 Pages In the United States legal system, torture is currently defined as â€Å"an act committed by a person acting under the color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control.† as defined by Office of the Law Revision Counsel, U.S. House of Representatives (US Code, 1) Though this is a seemingly black and white definition, the conditional â€Å"†¦otherRead MoreThe Trolley Case : An Ethical Thought Experiment1057 Words   |  5 PagesConsequentialism The Trolley Case is an ethical thought experiment that seeks to find the â€Å"right† solution in killing people. This thought experiment explains that there is a train coming down the tracks on course to run right into five people. You stand next to a lever which can switch the tracks so that only one person will die. The only options you have are to do nothing and allow five people to die, or pull the lever so that only one person will die. In Trolley Case 2, you can save five peopleRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility And Corporate Ethics1468 Words   |  6 Pagesof a company and social environment of a company (Fischer, 2004). LO1 Analyse concepts and theories of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and business ethics When discussing ethical theories, there is a mutual recognition of two main schools of thought. The deontological sight is that the correct action is one which is naturally right, and focuses on the choice about the decision making capacity to achieve the duty and responsibilities to the parties involved. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), a GermanRead MoreThe Debate Between Pro Life And Pro Choice868 Words   |  4 Pagesmedia and the morality of abortion scrutinized under the eye of third wave feminism, which has reclaimed the 1970’s slogan of ‘The Right to Choose’. The following essay intends to discuss how abortion is always an option and never a morally wrong act, as it is the mother’s choice to do with her body what she wishes and such the fetus has no right to leech off the mother when the host is not willing. In this discussion one shall, as Thomson did in ‘A Defence of Abortion’(1971), accept the stanceRead MoreEthics and Moral Theory3716 Wo rds   |  15 Pagesphilosophical study of Morality. What, then, is a moral theory? A theory is a structured set of statements used to explain (or predict) a set of facts or concepts.à  A moral theory, then, explains why a certain action is wrong -- or why we ought to act in certain ways.à Ãƒ  In short, it is a theory of how we determine right and wrong conduct.à  Also, moral theories provide the framework upon which we think and discuss in a reasoned way, and so evaluate, specific moral issues. Seen in this light, it becomesRead More The Harm Principle in the 21st Century Essay3465 Words   |  14 Pagesof which I speak is opportunity for action, rather than action itself. If, although I enjoy the right to walk through open doors, I prefer not to do so, but sit still and vegetate, I am not thereby rendered less free. Freedom is the opportunity to act, not action itself. (Berlin (1969), p.xlii). Some significant criticisms of, Mills Harm Principle have been expressed over the years. I intend to consider the three leading arguments, 1. VAGUENESS. In other words what exactly does Mill mean

Teacher and National Junior Honor Free Essays

I’m excited to be invited to be a member of National Junior Honor Society (NUNS). And it is a great opportunity for me. As a pre-member of NUNS, I have demonstrated three qualities, which are willingness to serve others, leadership, and character. We will write a custom essay sample on Teacher and National Junior Honor or any similar topic only for you Order Now These three qualities describe the very essence of my being. I’m from Burma which now they call Manner. And went to Malaysia to come to United States because Burma is in war. Live at Malaysia for about 4 years. Learned lots of English at Malaysia. After staying at Malaysia for about 4 years, I came to U. S. I’ve been at United States for 7 months. First thing that would like to talk is willingness to serve others. Like to help others; help my mom around the house all the times and because she don’t know much English I translate for her. And at school help my friends those who need help; I help them with what I know. Next, I demonstrated leadership. At school when the teachers group she/he always choose me as a roof leader because he/she think I will be a good leader, and to experience leadership. I help my group member when they don’t know, tell them what to do, make sure the work is done, to participate, and tell them to respect teacher like to keep quiet and follow teacher’s instruction. Last, want to talk about is character. Respect my teacher because they are the one that teach me, and my parents because they raise me until now. When they ask me to do something, do it. They have taught me to be inerrable. How to cite Teacher and National Junior Honor, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Operation Smile Essay Example

Operation Smile Essay For example, Kent State University; its one of 450 students associations working to ease money and educate students about the values of commitment, leadership and volunteerism, according to Operation Smiles website. This organization raises money by selling items such as sweatshirts and T-shirts, as well as candy and pens. The organization has raised $2,400 and in September of 2006 their money gave 10 children from all over the world the opportunity to have the life-altering surgery (Franco 2). Operation Smile is a nationally known organization open to all majors on the campus of Kent State. So even if someone Isnt Interested in the medical field, here Is still a way to help out with the organization. It looks really good to get Involved In campus actively and on resumes for future Jobs and graduate school applications, said Marcia Thomas, secretary of the Kent State chapter. For those who are interested in the medical field, as Thomas said, volunteering with a world-wide organization such as Operation Smile looks good on resumes for Job applications and graduate school applications. Plus someone could even find that they are specifically interested in working with facial deformities, which could help that errors and the organization. They would get a good Job, which could lead to an even better Job that pays, and they would be helping people all over the world. Cindy Raglan, a mother of two and a registered nurse, is one of the many volunteers who travel the world with Operation Smile. She also works in the newborn intensive care unit of the Childrens Hospital of the Kings Daughters in Norfolk, Virginia, the founding place of Operation Smile. We will write a custom essay sample on Operation Smile specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Operation Smile specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Operation Smile specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Along with the Childrens Hospital, Raglan works the night shift at the Operation Smile headquarters for several hours each day. This may sound like a lot of work, and it is, but its all worth it in the long run. Raglan is the perfect example of just that. Operation Smile changed her view of life for the better. The expression on the face of a child who had just undergone surgery can give those volunteers a since of hope, that they really can make a difference in these childrens lives. lye learned to appreciate the simple things in life, said Raglan. The treasures in life are people themselves. You open your heart and worlds come together (Weir 3). So what if someone has no medical experience whatsoever? Thats definitely not a problem; there are many things someone could do that dont Involve medicine. Raglan works as the nursing specialty coordinator, directing patients from screening to surgery and coordinating all of the nursing staff. Volunteers can do Just as Raglan did, help dire ct patients from screening to surgery or coordinate the nursing staff, every little thing helps. The two founders of Operation Smile, Bill and Kathy Image, are dedicated and determined to change the world by knelling tense Walt Tactical throttles. B I Image Is a plastic surgeon Wendell Kathy Is a nurse. The couple travels the world, helping indigent children get their smiles back. In some cultures, the birth of a disfigured child is considered a curse, and if the child is not abandoned outright, he or she may be cut off from the community (Peterson 1). With the Images and tons of volunteers help, these childrens facial deformities can have the medical attention they need to be considered a normal child. Mr.. Image donates 1 50 surgical days a year to Operation Smile and travels with his wife, Kathy, on missions 20 weeks a year. Neither of them has ever taken any money in salary, but they feel that theyve been richly rewarded for their service to others. (Peterson 2). Thanks to the Images dedication to Operation Smile, the organization plans to keep running for many years. One of their goals is to open all 12 countries on Operation Smiles waiting list. The only thing standing in their way is the constant challenge of raising the funds to send their doctors overseas to the countries that are in need of help. That likely wont happen in my lifetime, muses Bill, but my goal is to say with y actions more than my words that I think its important to help other people, that each of us has something to share (Peterson 3). This shows that the couple will not give up on their mission and will continue to raise funds so that they can travel the world and save many peoples lives. Without them, Operation Smile would not exist and tons of people around the world would be suffering from these terrible facial deformities. Get involved with Operation Smile because many student associations are involved, its a great experience for people interested in the medical field, and the menders are very active. There are many ways to get involved with Operation Smile. Kent State made their own organization to raise money for Operation Smile; simple things such as selling T-shirts, sweatshirts, and pens. Cindy Raglan commits to Operation Smile for many hours a day, and the organizations founders do everything they can to keep the Operation running smoothly and to help those with facial deformities. Getting involved with this organization teaches its volunteers to appreciate the simpler things in life, because theres always someone out there who has it worse off. Operation Smile Essay Example Operation Smile Paper Charity Foundations Depend on You For charity foundations, every charitable donation truly makes an impact. Whether a large corporate charitable donation or a small personal charitable donation, everything counts. With the average cost of a cleft lip operation at only $240, even a charitable donation of $20 per month for one year alleviates the burden of a facial deformity for one well-deserving child. Operation Smile is one of the many charitable foundations where you can really see the impact of your donation dollars. Here on our website, you can view pictures from our recent missions and read about the latest news and events. Operation Smile relies on charitable donations and medical volunteers to complete 25 or more missions each year. During a standard mission, a team of volunteer medical professionals performs free reconstructive surgeries on 100 to 150 children. You may be amazed at the difference your charitable donations make. Even the most severe facial deformities can be almost completely reversed by this surgery. If you are researching charity foundations, we invite you to browse around our website to see the progress we’ve made with charitable donations since 1982. In addition to what you can see in the before and after photos, Operation Smile works to raise awareness of this common facial deformity. Increased knowledge about cleft lip is especially important in developing countries, where there are thousands of children who have been abandoned and are now in orphanages because of a repairable cleft lip deformity. Operation Smile has continually ranked among the top charity foundations for its work around the globe year-round to correct the devastating facial deformities of children. We will write a custom essay sample on Operation Smile specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Operation Smile specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Operation Smile specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Your charitable donation doesn’t only impact the lives of children abroad. Operation Smile operates a U. S. Care Network as well, providing referrals for children who need assistance. QUICK FACTS * Operation Smile, headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, is a worldwide childrens medical charity. In 1982, Operation Smile was founded by Dr. William P. Magee Jr. , a plastic surgeon, and his wife, Kathleen S. Magee, a nurse and clinical social worker. * Operation Smile was launched with its first mission to the Philippines in 1982. Operation Smile currently supports international and local, in-country medical missions to 26 countries. * Operation Smile partner countries include: Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gaza Strip/West Bank, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jordan, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. * Since 1982, more than 115,000 children and young adults have been treated by thousands of volunteers worldwide and thousands of healthcare professionals have been trained globally. For as little as $240 Operation Smile can change a childs life by giving the gift of a surgery. Revenue in excess of surgical costs is invested into our sustainability programs, empowering our partner countries to treat more children on their own and making your investment go even farther. The complete Operation Smile model is an investment of $750 per child. In as little as 45 minutes, one cleft lip surgery c an change a childs life forever. * Operation Smile integrates its partnerships with leading medical teaching institutions into its in-country medical education programs. Our partners in education include Yale University, Chang Gung Hospital and University (Taiwan), Duke University and the University of Southern California. * Thousands of students in more than 500 Operation Smile Student Associations in the United States and around the world build awereness, raise funds and educate students about values of commitment, leadership and volunteerism. * Operation Smile has worldwide offices in Hong Kong, London, Dublin, Brisbane, Rome, Los Angeles, and New York City that raise funds and awareness to support international programs. The annual Operation Smile Physicians Training Program (PTP) brings doctors and nurses from around the world to the United States for advanced training in their specialized skills. Since 1987, more than 700 health care professionals have attended the program, held at our headquarters in Norfolk, VA. * The World Care Program brings children and young adults, through sponsorships, to the United States for surgeries that are too com plicated to be performed during in-country missions. Since 1985, more than 200 World Care patients have received life-changing surgery.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Free Essays on The Heavens Gate Cult

The Heaven’s Gate Cult Is there a higher, physical level above humankind? Is there possibly an escape from our planet to another level of existence? The members of Heaven’s Gate believed these questions to be true, which led to one of the largest mass suicides in United States History. Heaven’s Gate was formed and led by Marshall Herff Applewhite. His friends and family remember him as being funny and charismatic. Herff, as they called him, was a talented, over-achiever. People claimed he had a â€Å"conventional† life, with a wife and two children. Applewhite was born in Texas in 1931. He was the son of a Presbyterian minister. In his teenage years, Marshall Applewhite wanted to preach also. However, he had real musical talents and went on to become a music professor at the University of St. Thomas in Houston. He was also the choir director at St. Marks Episcopal Church. As well as teaching and preaching, Marshall Applewhite played the starring roles in stage musicals, such as â€Å"Oklahoma!† and â€Å"South Pacific†, and sang 15 roles with the Houston Grand Opera. His entire life suddenly changed in the early 1970’s, when he felt that his life was falling apart. As New York Times described, â€Å"†¦for reasons that were unclear, and with a suddenness that was equally mystifying, he was seemingly transformed into someone else from 1972 to 1975, a budding cult leader with beliefs in aliens and Armageddon.† He divorced and left his family in 1772. At some point soon after that, he ended up in the hospital due to some trouble with his heart and a near death experience. It was there that he met Bonnie Lu Nettles, who was 44 at the time, happily married and a mother to four children. Nettles was a nurse caring for Applewhite. The two discovered a mutual interest in astrology and reincarnation. They soon came to believe that they were the earthly incarnations of aliens. The Heaven’s Gate Internet site states... Free Essays on The Heaven's Gate Cult Free Essays on The Heaven's Gate Cult The Heaven’s Gate Cult Is there a higher, physical level above humankind? Is there possibly an escape from our planet to another level of existence? The members of Heaven’s Gate believed these questions to be true, which led to one of the largest mass suicides in United States History. Heaven’s Gate was formed and led by Marshall Herff Applewhite. His friends and family remember him as being funny and charismatic. Herff, as they called him, was a talented, over-achiever. People claimed he had a â€Å"conventional† life, with a wife and two children. Applewhite was born in Texas in 1931. He was the son of a Presbyterian minister. In his teenage years, Marshall Applewhite wanted to preach also. However, he had real musical talents and went on to become a music professor at the University of St. Thomas in Houston. He was also the choir director at St. Marks Episcopal Church. As well as teaching and preaching, Marshall Applewhite played the starring roles in stage musicals, such as â€Å"Oklahoma!† and â€Å"South Pacific†, and sang 15 roles with the Houston Grand Opera. His entire life suddenly changed in the early 1970’s, when he felt that his life was falling apart. As New York Times described, â€Å"†¦for reasons that were unclear, and with a suddenness that was equally mystifying, he was seemingly transformed into someone else from 1972 to 1975, a budding cult leader with beliefs in aliens and Armageddon.† He divorced and left his family in 1772. At some point soon after that, he ended up in the hospital due to some trouble with his heart and a near death experience. It was there that he met Bonnie Lu Nettles, who was 44 at the time, happily married and a mother to four children. Nettles was a nurse caring for Applewhite. The two discovered a mutual interest in astrology and reincarnation. They soon came to believe that they were the earthly incarnations of aliens. The Heaven’s Gate Internet site states...

Monday, March 2, 2020

How to Study for a Multiple Choice Exam

How to Study for a Multiple Choice Exam Studying for a multiple choice exam is a skill that you can learn, hone, and perfect. These steps for studying for a multiple choice exam will improve your chances of getting the grade you want. Start Studying The First Day of School That sounds crazy, but its true. Your exam prep starts on the first day. Nothing beats time and repetition when it comes to learning. The best way to learn anything is to participate in class, take careful notes during lectures, study for your quizzes, and learn as you go. Then, when its a multiple choice test day, you will just be reviewing the information instead of learning it all for the first time.   Ask for the Multiple Choice Test Content Before you begin officially studying for your exam, ask your teacher or professor for information about the test content with questions like these: Are you providing a study guide?  This should be the first question out of your mouth. You will save yourself a ton of time scavenging through your book and old quizzes if your teacher or professor gives you one of these.  Will vocabulary from this chapter/unit be tested?  If so, how?  If you memorize all the vocabulary with their definitions, but you cant use the words appropriately, then you may have wasted your time. Many teachers will ask for a textbook definition of a vocabulary word, but there are a bunch of teachers who dont care if you know the definition word for word, as long as you can use it or apply it.  Will we need to apply the information weve learned or simply memorize it? This is an important question. A simple knowledge-based multiple choice exam, one where you have to know names, dates, and other detailed info, is pretty easy to study for. Just memorize and go. However, if youre going to need to be able to synthesize, apply, or evaluate the information y ouve learned, that requires a much deeper understanding and more time.   Create a Study Schedule Establish a study schedule at least two weeks before your test day. Using this schedule, you can determine exactly when you have a few extra hours available, then make the most of that study time, rather than cramming minutes before the exam. To study for a multiple choice exam, its best to start several weeks in advance, studying in short bursts until test day. Organize Your Chapter Notes Your teacher has probably already given you much of the test content in your notes, quizzes, and former assignments. So, go back through the material. Rewrite your notes or type them up so theyre legible. Find the answers to incorrect quiz questions or problems you missed on your assignments. Organize everything so its ready to be studied. Set a Timer Dont spend three hours studying for a test in a row. Instead, select a chunk of material to master and set a timer for 45 minutes. Study with focused attention for all 45 minutes, then take a 5-10 minute break when the timer goes off. Once the break is over, repeat: set the timer for another 45 minutes, study, and take a break. Continue this process until youre confident in your knowledge of the material. Master the Material Youre going to have choices on this multiple choice exam (thats why its called multiple choice, after all). As long you can differentiate between the right and kinda right answers, youre likely to succeed. Remember, you dont have to recite any details- rather, youll just need to recognize correct information. For memorizing facts, use mnemonic devices like singing a song or drawing pictures to help you memorize the information. Use flashcards to memorize vocabulary.   When studying complex concepts or ideas, explain the idea out loud to yourself as if youre teaching it to someone else. Alternatively, explain the idea to a study partner, or write a paragraph about it in simple language. If youre a visual learner, draw a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting the concept with an idea that you already know well. Ask Someone to Quiz You To test your knowledge, ask a study partner to quiz you on the material. The best type of study partner will also ask you to explain your answer to see if you  really  know what youre talking about rather than just reciting the content.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Sowftware design problem Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sowftware design problem - Research Paper Example The power of computers in such an activity leads to the establishment of numerous software companies, which are engaged in developing a variety of applications. As a safety related system is under development, a safety argument is under preparation that shows why confidence needs to be put in the system’s ability to meet safety requirements. This leads to the question why those requirements demand safe operation. The moment the system and its arguments are acknowledged, the system is set into operation. Faults may still exist in the system or in its maintenance or operational procedures if the safety argument is not complete. If triggered, the faults can lead to a failure. In such a case, an analysis needs to be conducted to distinguish the nature of the failure. It might be random or even systemic, i.e. due to a design fault, which was introduced when the system was being developed or serviced. Failures that arise from systemic faults must be comprehensively analyzed to avoid recurrences (Baah 3). Large projects, for example, Agropoli’s system of public transportation involves qualified personnel in the software development process. Software companies face several issues in the process of software development. These include: possible negligence of the software developer and another involves possible negligence, but adds another party who happens to be the malicious hacker. Other problems include change of rules during development, preservation of existing software, flexibility due to lack of standards as well as behavior of discrete systems. The complexity involved in the process of software development leads to software bugs. Late completion, low quality, lack of reliability and software not satisfying the stated demand are the symptoms of software bugs. In a scenario, for example, the Agropoli’s system of public transportation where the system under development is discovered to have some difficulties during